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About the Pediatric Neurosurgery Fund
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> About The Brain
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ABOUT THE BRAIN




What are the sections of the brain and what do they do?

The brain is made up of many specialized areas that work together:
  • The cortex is the outermost layer of brain cells. Thinking and voluntary movements begin in the cortex.
  • The brain stem is between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain. Basic functions like breathing and sleep are controlled here.
  • The basal ganglia are a cluster of structures in the center of the brain. The basal ganglia coordinate messages between multiple other brain areas.
  • The cerebellum is at the base and the back of the brain. The cerebellum is responsible for coordination and balance.
The brain is also divided into several lobes:
  • The frontal lobes are responsible for problem solving and judgment and motor function.
  • The parietal lobes manage sensation, handwriting, and body position.
  • The temporal lobes are involved with memory and hearing.
  • The occipital lobes contain the brain's visual processing system.
The brain is surrounded by a layer of tissue called the meninges. The skull (cranium) helps protect the brain from injury.

Source: Wikipedia


THE CRANIAL NERVES



Nerve #  Name Function
Cranial Nerve 1 Olfactory Relay Smell
Cranial Nerve 2 Optic Transmit visual information
Cranial Nerve 3 Oculomotor External movement of eye
Cranial Nerve 4 Trochlear Supplies muscles of eye
Cranial Nerve 5 Trigeminal Chewing and sensation in face
Cranial Nerve 6 Abducent Controls lateral eye movement
Cranial Nerve 7 Facial Muscles of facial expression, taste, blinking, finger/toe
Cranial Nerve 8 Auditory Hearing and balance
Cranial Nerve 9 Glossopharyngeal Sensation, taste, and swallowing
Cranial Nerve 10 Vagus Organs in chest and abdomen
Cranial Nerve 11 Accessory Supply two neck muscles
Cranial Nerve 12 Hypoglossal Muscles in tongue and neck


THE SPINE